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10.10.2013 15:08 - ЦИТИРАНЕ *Правила на университета Ръскин * англ. ез- 2 от 4
Автор: ulian Категория: Други   
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Правила за цитирането - откъс 2 (2 от 4)
(1966 cited in Bassett, 1986, p.142) found that …
In this example, Brown is the work which you wish to refer to, but have not read
directly for yourself. Bassett is the secondary source, where you found the
summary of Brown’s work.
Or indirectly:
(Brown, 1966 cited in Bassett, 1986, p.142)
In the example below White is the primary or original source and Black is the
secondary source. It is important to realise that Black may have taken White"s
ideas forward, and altered their original meaning. If you need to cite a secondary
reference it is recommended that, where possible, you read the original source
for yourself rather than rely on someone else’s interpretation of a work.
White, (1990) as cited in Black (1994), suggests that …
The reference list at the end of your document should only contain works
that you have read
Anglia Ruskin University
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm 12
2.16 Tables and diagrams
When reproducing selected data, or copying an entire table or diagram, a
reference must be made to the source. A reference within the text to a table
taken from e.g. a book, should include the author and page (Smith, 2005, p.33)
to enable the reader to identify the data. If the source of the data is not the
author’s own, but obtained from another source, it becomes a secondary
reference and needs to be cited as such:
(United Nations, 1975 cited in Smith, 2005, p.33)
If the table is reproduced in its entirety, place the citation as a footnote. Be
particularly careful to note the original source of data, as well as the authorship of
the document you are using. Full details should be included in the reference list.
In the following example, a table is reproduced from page 267, of a book written
by Robert Amazon which is the 4th edition and published by FT Prentice Hall of
Harlow, England in 2005. The title of the book is Management in the media:
decision makers.
♦ If you wish to reproduce the table in your own work – replicate the table
and add a Footnote – at the bottom of the page in your own work acknowledging
the source of the reproduced table.
*National Statistics Office 1985 cited in Amazon, 2005, p.267
♦ If you wish to quote from a table in the above book in your essay:
… historical figures demonstrate that only sixty percent of households had
televisions in Britain by the 1970s (National Statistics Office 1985 cited in
Amazon, 2005, p. 267).
♦ Ensure you include the book in the reference list or bibliography at the
end of your work:
Amazon, R., 2005. Management in the media: decision makers. 4th ed. Harlow:
FT Prentice Hall.
Television ownership in England (Percentage of
households)
Date 1970 1980
Percentage 60 70
Source : National Statistics Office, 1985 *
Anglia Ruskin University
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm 13
2.17 Websites
When citing material found on a website, you should identify the authorship of the
website. This may be a corporate author, an organisation or a company; a guide
to this can be found by looking at the URL or web address. To find the date of
publication, reference to this might be found at the bottom of a web page relating
to copyright, or from a date headline.
In this example the authorship would be BBC and the date 2009.
Recent research on meningitis (BBC, 2009) has shown …
This is the
published or
amended date
This is NOT the
article date but
today’s date – check
the bottom of the
page
Anglia Ruskin University
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm 14
3. COMPILING THE REFERENCE LIST AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
3.1 General guidelines, layout and punctuation
The purpose of a reference list is to enable sources to be easily traced by
another reader. Different types of publication require different amounts of
information but there are certain common elements such as authorship, year of
publication and title.
Section 7 deals with references where some of the details are unknown.
The Harvard style lays down standards for the order and content of information in
the reference. Some variations of layout are acceptable provided that they are
used consistently.
All items should be listed alphabetically by author or authorship, regardless of the
format, ie. whether books, websites or journal articles etc. Where there are
several works from one author or source they should by listed together but in
date order, with the earliest work listed first.
3.2 Books
3.2.1 Books with one author
Use the title page, not the book cover, for the reference details. Only include the
edition where it is not the first. A book with no edition statement is most
commonly a first edition.
The required elements for a book reference are:
Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. Edition. (only include this if not the first
edition) Place of publication (this must be a town or city, not a country):
Publisher.
Reference
where 1st edition
Baron, D. P., 2008. Business and the organisation. Chester: Pearson.
where 3rd edition
Redman, P., 2006. Good essay writing: a social sciences guide. 3rd ed.
London: Open University in assoc. with Sage.
An intext reference for the above examples would read:
Anglia Ruskin University
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm 15
Organisations have been found to differ (Baron, 2008) when there is …
Leading social scientists such as Redman (2006) have noted …
Please note where there is likely to be confusion with UK place names; for USA
towns include the State in abbreviated form e.g. Birmingham, AL.
3.2.2 Books with two, three or four authors
For books with two, three or four authors of equal status the names should all be
included in the order they appear in the document. Use an and to link the last
two multiple authors.
The required elements for a reference are:
Authors, Initials., Year. Title of book. Edition. (only include this if not the first
edition) Place: Publisher.
Reference
Barker, R. Kirk, J. and Munday, R.J., 1988. Narrative analysis. 3rd ed.
Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
An intext reference for the above examples would read:
A new theory (Barker and Munday, 1988) has challenged traditional
thinking …
3.2.3 Books with more than four authors
For books where there are more than four authors, use the first author only with
surname and initials followed by et al.
The required elements for a reference are:
Author, Initials.and et al, Year. Title of book. Edition. (only include this if not the
first edition) Place: Publisher.
Reference
Grace, B. et al., 1988. A history of the world. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press.
Anglia Ruskin University
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm 16
3.2.4 Books which are edited
For books which are edited give the editor(s) surname(s) and initials, followed by
ed. or eds.
The required elements for a reference are:
Author, Initials. ed., Year. Title of book. Edition. Place: Publisher.
Keene, E. ed., 1988. Natural language. Cambridge: University of
Cambridge Press.
Silverman, D.F. and Propp, K.K. eds., 1990. The active interview. Beverly
Hills, CA: Sage.
Allouche, J. ed., 2006. Corporate social resposibility, Volume 1: concepts,
accountability and reporting. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
3.2.5 Chapters of edited books
For chapters of edited books the required elements for a reference are:
Chapter author(s) surname(s) and initials. Year of chapter. Title of chapter
followed by In: Book editor(s) initials and surnames with ed. or eds. after the last
name. Year of book. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. Chapter
number or first and last page numbers followed by full-stop.
References
Smith, J., 1975. A source of information. In: W. Jones, ed. 2000. One
hundred and one ways to find information about health. Oxford: Oxford
University Press. Ch.2.
Samson, C., 1970. Problems of information studies in history. In: S. Stone,
ed. 1980. Humanities information research. Sheffield: CRUS,
pp.44-68.
An intext reference for the above example would read:
(Smith, 1975)
(Samson, 1970)
Anglia Ruskin University
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm 17
3.2.6 Multiple works by the same author
Where there are several works by one author and published in the same year
they should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter after the date.
Remember that this must also be consistent with the citations in the text
For multiple works the required elements for a reference are:
Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. Place: Publisher.
Soros, G., 1966a. The road to serfdom. Chicago: University of Chicago
Press.
Soros, G., 1966b. Beyond the road to serfdom. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press.
Works by the same author should be displayed in chronological order, earliest
first (as above).
An intext reference for the above example would read:
(Soros, 1966a)
(Soros, 1966b)
This also applies if there are several authors with the same surname. As an
alternative their initials can be included in the citation.
So for example, if you have sources written by George Soros and also by Manuel
Soros, you would list them in alphabetic order:
(Soros, G. 1966a)
(Soros, G. 1966b)
(Soros, M. 1966)
3.2.7 Books which have been translated
For works which have been translated the reference should include details of the
translator, the suggested elements for such references being:
Author, Year. Title of book. Translated from (language) by (name of translator)
Place of publication: Publisher.
Anglia Ruskin University
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm 18
Canetti, E., 2001. The voices of Marrakesh: a record of a visit. Translated
from German by J.A.Underwood. San Francisco: Arion.
For major works of historic significance, the date of the original work may be
included along with the date of the translation:
Kant, I., 1785. Fundamental principles of the metaphysic of morals.
Translated by T.K. Abbott., 1988. New York: Prometheus Books.
3.2.8 E-books
For e-books accessed through a password protected database from the
University Library the required elements for a reference are:
Author, Year, Title of book. [type of medium] Place of publication: Publisher.
Followed by “Available through:” include e-book source/database, web address
or URL [Accessed date].
Fishman, R., 2005. The rise and fall of suburbia. [e-book] Chester: Castle
Press. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library

[Accessed 5 June 2005].
Carlsen, J. and Charters, S., eds. 2007. Global wine tourism. [e-book]
Wallingford: CABI Pub. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library
website [Accessed 9 June 2008].
For an e-book freely available over the internet:
The required elements for a reference are:
Authorship, Year, Title of book. [type of medium] Place of publication (if known):
Publisher. Followed by “Available at:” include web address or URL for the e-book
[Accessed date].
For a pdf version of a Government publication or similar which is freely
available:
The required elements for a reference are:
Authorship, Year, Title of book. [type of medium] Place of publication: Publisher.
Followed by “Available at:” include web address or URL for the actual pdf, where
available [Accessed date].
Department of Health, 2008. Health inequalities: progress and next steps.
[pdf] London: Department of Health. Available at:
Anglia Ruskin University
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm 19
[Accessed 9 June 2008].
Bank of England, 2008. Inflation Report [pdf] Available at:

[Accessed 20 April 2009].
An intext reference for the above example would read:
Recent evidence (Bank of England, 2008, pp.32-33) show the trends ...
3.3 Journal articles and newspapers
3.3.1 Journal articles
For journal articles the required elements for a reference are:
Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, Volume number (Issue /
Part number), Page numbers.
Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: a brief look. Political
Science Quarterly, 42 (6), p.564.
Perry, C., 2001. What health care assistants know about clean hands.
Nursing Times, 25 May, 97(22), pp.63-64.
Cox, C., 2002. What health care assistants know about clean hands.
Nursing today, Spring Issue, pp.647-85.
3.3.2 Journal articles available from a database
For journal articles from an electronic source accessed through a password
protected database from the University Library the required elements for a
reference are:
Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [type of medium]
Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if available. Available
through:name of database [Accessed date].
In this example, the article is found on the Blackwell Science Synergy database:
Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: an in depth look.
Political Science Quarterly, [e-journal] 42 (6), Available through: Blackwell
Science Synergy database [Accessed 12 June 2005].
Anglia Ruskin University
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm 20
3.3.3 Magazine or journal articles available on the internet
For an article from a web based magazine or journal, which is freely available
over the web, the required elements for a reference are:
Authors, Initials., Year . Title of article, Full Title of Magazine, [online]. Available
at: web address (quote the exact URL for the article) [Accessed date].
Kipper, D. , 2008. Japan’s new dawn, Popular Science and Technology,
[online] Available at:
[Accessed 22 June 2009].
An intext reference for the above example would read:
(Kipper, 2008) ...
3.3.4 Journal abstract from a database
For a journal abstract from a database where you have been unable to access
the full article, the required elements for a reference are:
Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [type of medium]
Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if available, Abstract only.
Available through:.[name of database]. [Accessed date].
Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: a brief look. Political
Science Quarterly, [e-journal] 42(6), Abstract only. Available through:
BlackwellScienceSynergy database [Accessed 12 June 2005].
Every effort should be made to read the article in full if you intend to use this
work as supporting evidence in an academic submission.
3.3.5 Newspaper articles
For newspaper articles the required elements for a reference are:
Author, Initials., Year. Title of article or column header. Full Title of Newspaper,
Day and month before page number and column line.
Slapper, G., 2005. Corporate manslaughter: new issues for lawyers.
The Times, 3 Sep. p.4b.
Anglia Ruskin University
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm 21
(NB. 4b, this indicates that the article is on the fourth page of the newspaper, and
“b” indicates this is the second column of newsprint across the page.)
3.3.6 Online newspaper articles
For newspaper articles found in online newspapers, the required elements for a
reference are:
Author or corporate author, Year. Title of document or page. Name of
newspaper, [type of medium] Additional date information. Available at:.[name of
database]. [Accessed date].
Chittenden, M., Rogers, L. and Smith, D., 2003. Focus: ‘Targetitis ails
NHS. Times Online, [online]1 June. Available at:

[Accessed 17 March 2005].
Reference
Coney, J., 2009. Is this the start of a new home loan war? HSBC vows to
lend Ј1billion to homebuyers with 10% deposits. Daily Mail, [online] (Last
updated 9.47 AM on 09th April 2009) Available at:

[Accessed on 20 April 2009].
An intext reference for the above example would read:
(Coney, 2009)
It is good practice to keep in your files a copy of the front page of any
website you use
Anglia Ruskin University



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