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10.10.2013 15:01 - ЦИТИРАНЕ *Правила на университета Ръскин * англ. ез- 1от 4
Автор: ulian Категория: Други   
Прочетен: 914 Коментари: 0 Гласове:
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Последна промяна: 10.10.2013 15:04


Правила за цитиране на ун-та Ръскин - 1 от 4 (начало)
Anglia Ruskin University
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm 2
1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................4
1.1 Explanation of citation and referencing .....................................................4
1.2 Plagiarism.................................................................................................4
1.3 Referencing systems.................................................................................5
2. CITING REFERENCES INTEXT USING THE HARVARD SYSTEM......................6
2.1 Author’s name cited in the text..................................................................6
2.2 Author’s name not cited directly in the text................................................6
2.3 More than one author cited in the text.......................................................6
2.4 More than one author not cited directly in the text ....................................7
2.5 Two, three or four authors for the same work ...........................................7
2.6 More than four authors for a work.............................................................7
2.7 Several works by one author in different years .........................................8
2.8 Several works by one author in the same year .........................................8
2.9 Chapter authors in edited works ...............................................................8
2.10 Corporate authors ..................................................................................9
2.11 No author ...............................................................................................9
2.12 No date ................................................................................................10
2.13 Page numbers......................................................................................10
2.14 Quoting portions of published text........................................................10
2.15 Secondary sources (second-hand references) ....................................11
2.16 Tables and diagrams............................................................................12
2.17 Websites ..............................................................................................13
3. COMPILING THE REFERENCE LIST AND BIBLIOGRAPHY.............................14
3.1 General guidelines, layout and punctuation ............................................14
3.2 Books......................................................................................................14
3.2.1 Books with one author .........................................................................14
3.2.2 Books with two, three or four authors...................................................15
3.2.3 Books with more than four authors ......................................................15
3.2.4 Books which are edited........................................................................16
3.2.5 Chapters of edited books .....................................................................16
3.2.6 Multiple works by the same author.......................................................17
3.2.7 Books which have been translated ......................................................17
3.2.8 E-books................................................................................................18
3.3 Journal articles and newspapers.............................................................19
3.3.1 Journal articles.....................................................................................19
3.3.2 Journal articles available from a database ...........................................19
3.3.3 Magazine or journal articles available on the internet ..........................20
3.3.4 Journal abstract from a database..........................................................20
3.3.5 Newspaper articles ...............................................................................20
3.3.6 Online newspaper articles.....................................................................21
4. OTHER TYPES OF DOCUMENT .........................................................................22
4.1 Acts of Parliament...................................................................................22
Anglia Ruskin University
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm 3
4.2 Statutory Instruments..............................................................................22
4.3 Official publications such as Command Papers ......................................22
4.4 Law reports .............................................................................................23
4.5 Annual report ..........................................................................................23
4.6 Archive material ......................................................................................24
4.7 British Standard and International Standards..........................................24
4.7 Patent .....................................................................................................24
4.9 Conference report ...................................................................................25
4.10 Conference paper ................................................................................25
4.11 Dissertation ..........................................................................................25
4.12 DVD, video or film ................................................................................26
4.13 Broadcasts ...........................................................................................26
4.14 EU documents .....................................................................................26
4.15 Course material....................................................................................27
4.16 Map......................................................................................................28
4.17 Quotations from written plays...............................................................28
4.18 Pictures, images and photographs.......................................................29
4.19 Interviews.............................................................................................29
4.20 Press release .......................................................................................30
5. ELECTRONIC SOURCES ....................................................................................32
5.1 Websites .................................................................................................32
5.2 Publications available from websites.......................................................33
5.3 Electronic images....................................................................................33
5.4 Email correspondence/discussion lists....................................................34
5.5 Blogs.......................................................................................................35
5.6 Mailing list ...............................................................................................36
5.7 Podcast or archived tv programme .........................................................36
5.8 YouTube video........................................................................................36
6. UNPUBLISHED WORKS......................................................................................37
6.1 Unpublished works..................................................................................37
6.2 Informal or in-house publications ............................................................37
6.3 Personal communication.........................................................................37
7. REFERENCES WITH MISSING DETAILS ...........................................................38
8. NOTES FROM COMPILERS AND CHANGES INTRODUCED TO SECOND
EDITION.........................................................................................................................39
Anglia Ruskin University
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm 4
1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 Explanation of citation and referencing
During the course of writing an essay, report or other assignment it is usual to
support arguments by reference to other published work. These references may
be from work presented in journal or newspaper articles, government reports,
books or specific chapters of books, research dissertations or theses, material
over the internet etc.
Citation is the practice of referring to the work of other authors in the text of your
own piece of work. Such works are cited to show evidence both of the
background reading that has been done and to support the content and
conclusions.
Each citation requires a reference at the end of the work; this gives the full
details of the source item and should enable it to be traced. Referring accurately
to such source materials is part of sound academic practice and a skill that
should be mastered. Other reasons for accurate citation and referencing are:
♦ To give credit to the concepts and ideas of other authors
♦ To provide the reader (often the marker/examiner of the assignment) with
evidence of the breadth and depth of your reading
♦ To enable those who read your work to locate the cited references easily
Remember to note the details of all the documents you read
The following pages give detailed guidance for various types of documents as
there are major differences between books, journal articles and websites. These
are based on consultation with colleagues at Anglia Ruskin University, with
examples, in red, for illustrative purposes.
1.2 Plagiarism
Plagiarism is passing off the work of others as your own. This constitutes
academic theft and is a serious matter which is penalised in assignment marking.
The following extract is from the Anglia Ruskin University Academic Regulations
(2010) For full details see:
Anglia Ruskin University. 2010. Anglia Ruskin University Academic Regulations. [online]
3rd edition. 2010
Available at: < http://web.anglia.ac.uk/anet/academic/academic_regulations.phtml>
Anglia Ruskin University
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm 5
“10.7 Plagiarism and collusion are common forms of assessment offence. They are
defined as follows:
“Plagiarism”
10.7.1 Plagiarism is the submission of an item of assessment containing elements of
work produced by another person(s) in such a way that it could be assumed to be the
student’s own work.
Examples of plagiarism are:
• the verbatim copying of another person’s work without acknowledgement
• the close paraphrasing of another person’s work by simply changing a few
words or altering the order of presentation without acknowledgement
• the unacknowledged quotation of phrases from another person’s work and/or
the presentation of another person’s idea(s) as one’s own.
10.7.2 Copying or close paraphrasing with occasional acknowledgement of the source
may also be deemed to be plagiarism if the absence of quotation marks implies that the
phraseology is the student’s own.
10.7.3 Plagiarised work may belong to another student or be from a published source
such as a book, report, journal or material available on the internet.”
1.3 Referencing systems
There are a number of systems for the citation of references. Anglia Ruskin
University expects students to use the alphabetical/name-date system, in a
particular style, known as the Harvard style. In this, for a book, the author"s
surname and year of publication are cited in the text, e.g. (Bond, 2004) and a
reference list (of these citations) is included at the end of the assignment, in
alphabetical order by authorship with date. This reference list will also include
the full details of the document.
A bibliography lists relevant items that you have used in the preparation of the
assignment but not necessarily cited in your text. If you include a bibliography
in your work, this should also be in the Harvard style and will demonstrate that
you have read widely.
As Faculty regulations may differ in the use of bibliographies and reference lists,
students are advised to check with their Faculty.
Anglia Ruskin University
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm 6
2. CITING REFERENCES INTEXT using the Harvard System
Any intext reference should include the authorship and the year of the work.
Depending on the nature of the sentence/paragraph that is being written,
references to sources may be cited in the text in the following manner:
2.1 Author’s name cited in the text
When making reference to an author’s work in your text, their name is followed
by the year of publication of their work:
In general, when writing for a professional publication, it is good practice
to make reference to other relevant published work. This view has been
supported in the work of Cormack (1994).
Where you are mentioning a particular part of the work, and making direct
reference to this, a page reference should be included:
Cormack (1994, pp.32-33) states that "when writing for a professional
readership, writers invariably make reference to already published works".
2.2 Author’s name not cited directly in the text
If you make reference to a work or piece of research without mentioning the
author in the text then both the author’s name and publication year are placed at
the relevant point in the sentence or at the end of the sentence in brackets:
Making reference to published work appears to be characteristic of writing
for a professional audience (Cormack, 1994).
2.3 More than one author cited in the text
Where reference is made to more than one author in a sentence, and they are
referred to directly, they are both cited:
Jones (1946) and Smith (1948) have both shown …
Anglia Ruskin University
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm 7
2.4 More than one author not cited directly in the text
List these at the relevant point in the sentence or at the end of the sentence,
putting the author’s name, followed by the date of publication and separated by a
semi-colon and within brackets.
Where several publications from a number of authors are referred to, then the
references should be cited in chronological order (i.e. earliest first):
Further research in the late forties (Jones, 1946; Smith, 1948) led to major
developments …
(Collins, 1998; Brown, 2001; Davies, 2008)
2.5 Two, three or four authors for the same work
When there are two authors for a work they should both be noted in the text:
White and Brown (2004) in their recent research paper found …
with regard to PREP and the role of libraries, Crane and Urquhart (1994)
suggest …
or indirectly, using an and:
During the mid nineties research undertaken in Luton (Slater and Jones,
1996) showed that …
or
Earlier research (White and Brown, 1966) demonstrated that the presence
of certain chemicals would lead to …
2.6 More than four authors for a work
Where there are several authors (more than four), only the first author should be
used, followed by ‘et al.’ meaning and others:
Green, et al. (1995) found that the majority …
or indirectly:
Recent research (Green, et al., 1995) has found that the majority of …
Anglia Ruskin University
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm 8
2.7 Several works by one author in different years
If more than one publication from an author illustrates the same point and the
works are published in different years, then the references should be cited in
chronological order (i.e. earliest first):
as suggested by Bloggs (1992, 1994) who found that …
or indirectly:
research in the nineties (Bloggs 1992, 1994) found that …
2.8 Several works by one author in the same year
If you are quoting several works published by the same author in the same year,
they should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter directly, with no space,
after the year for each item:
Earlier research by Dunn (1993a) found that…but later
research suggested again by Dunn (1993b) that …
If several works published in the same year are referred to on a single occasion,
or an author has made the same point in several publications, they can all be
referred to by using lower case letters (as above):
Bloggs (1993a, b) has stated on more than one occasion that …
2.9 Chapter authors in edited works
References to the work of an author that appears as a chapter, or part of a larger
work, that is edited by someone else, should be cited within your text using the
name of the contributory author not the editor of the whole work.
In his work on health information, Smith (1975) states …
In the reference list at the end of your document, you should include
details of both the chapter author and the editor of the entire work
(See Section 3.2.4 Chapters of edited books for further details).
Anglia Ruskin University
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm 9
2.10 Corporate authors
If the work is by a recognised organisation and has no personal author then it is
usually cited under the body that commissioned the work. This applies to
publications by associations, companies, government departments etc. such as
Department of the Environment or Royal College of Nursing.
It is acceptable to use standard abbreviations for these bodies, e.g. RCN, in your
text, providing that the full name is given at the first citing with the abbreviation in
brackets:
1st citation:
… research in 2006 undertaken by the Royal College of Nursing (RCN)
has shown that …
2nd citation:
More recently the RCN (2007) has issued guidelines …
Note that the full name is the preferred format in the reference list. Some reports
are written by specially convened groups or committees and can be cited by the
name of the committee:
Committee on Nursing (1972)
Select Committee on Stem Cell Research (2002)
Note there are some exceptions to this such as
BBC Philharmonic Orchestra
BBC News
where the abbreviations or initials form part of the official name.
2.11 No author
If the author cannot be identified use ‘Anonymous’ or ‘Anon.’ and the title of the
work and date of publication. The title should be written in italics. Every effort
should be made to establish the authorship if you intend to use this work as
supporting evidence in an academic submission:
Marketing strategy (Anon., 1999)
Anglia Ruskin University
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm 10
2.12 No date
The abbreviation n.d. is used to denote this:
Smith (n.d.) has written and demonstrated …
or indirectly:
Earlier research (Smith, n.d.) demonstrated that …
Every effort should be made to establish the year of publication if you intend to
use this work as supporting evidence in an academic submission.
See also Section 7 References with missing details
2.13 Page numbers
Including the page numbers of a reference will help readers trace your sources.
This is particularly important for quotations and for paraphrasing specific
paragraphs in the texts:
Lawrence (1966, p.124) states “we should expect …”
or indirectly:
This is to be expected (Lawrence, 1966, p.124) …
Please note page numbers: preceded with p. for a single page.and pp. for a
range of pages
2.14 Quoting portions of published text
If you want to include text from a published work in your essay then the
sentence(s) must be included within quotation marks, and may be introduced by
such phrases as:
the author states that “……..”
or
the author writes that “……..”
Anglia Ruskin University
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm 11
In order for a reader to trace the quoted section it is good practice to give the
number of the page where the quotation was found. The quotation should also
be emphasized (especially if it runs to 50 words or more) by indenting it and
using quotation marks. This clearly identifies the quotation as the work of
someone else:
On the topic of professional writing and referencing
Cormack (1994, p.32) states:
"When writing for a professional readership, writers invariably make
reference to already published works".
For full details on the acceptable length of quotes see Anglia Ruskin University
Academic Regulations (full reference see page 4).
2.15 Secondary sources (second-hand references)
You may come across a summary of another author’s work in the source you are
reading, which you would like to make reference to in your own document; this is
called secondary referencing.
A direct reference:
Research recently carried out in the Greater Manchester area by Brown


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Автор: ulian
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